Canadian Events of the 1860s

April 26, 1860The Queen’s Own Rifles (QOR) of Canada was formed. Based in Toronto, it is a primary reserve regiment  of the Canadian Armed Forces. An online museum is available.
 August 25, 1860Victoria Jubilee Bridge was the first to span the St. Lawrence River. Built between 1854 and 1859, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales participated in the official opening ceremony in 1860.
 May 13, 1861The United Kingdom declared it would remain neutral through the American Civil War
 1861Dr. Anderson Ruffin Abbott was the first Canadian-born black to graduate from medical school
 March 10, 1861Pauline Johnson was born. She became a poet, writer and performer.
 November 17, 1861Archibald Lampman was born. He would become a recognized poet.
 1862The first female student was accepted to study at Mount Allison University in Sackville, New Brunswick.
1862Smallpox sweeps through Fort Victoria area and down the length of the northwest coast.
August 18, 1862Simon Fraser, recognized fur-trader and explorer died.
 1863The 7th Parliament of the Province of Canada was in session until May of this year.
 February 3, 1863James White was born. He would become a noted geographer.
July 1, 1863William Grant Stairs was born. He would be recognized as an explorer, soldier and adventurer.
June 30, 1864Macdonald-Cartier coalition government formed.
September 1 – 9, 1864Charlottetown Conference. First step toward Confederation.
October 10 – 27, 1864Quebec Conference identified 72 resolutions for the British North America Act.
March 31, 1864J. J. Kelso who would become a journalist and social activist was born.
October 8, 1864Ozias Leduc was born. He became a painter.
January 4, 1865The New York Stock Exchange opened headquarters on Broad near Wall Street in New York City.
February 8, 1865Gregor Medel read his paper titled Experiments on Plant Hybridization, at two meetings of the Natural History Society of Brunn in Moravia. This paper became the origin of the theory of Mendelian inheritance.
 February 21, 1865John Deere received a patent for ploughs.
 July 1865The Christian Mission, later to be renamed The Salvation Army, was founded in Whitechapel, London by William and Catherine Booth.
 June 2, 1866Battle of Ridgeway. Fenians, an irregular army of Irish-Americans invaded Canada near the town of Fort Erie.
 1866Piano manufacturer Heintzman & Co., was incorporated.